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The 13 Essential Organic Micronutrients

Water Soluble

Vitamin C: Ascorbic Acid

Necessary for Hydroxyproline Amino Acid Synthesis which is required in Collagen Production; deficiency leading to the disease known as Scurvy. Frees Vitamin E from and Neutralizes Free Radicals (Oxidants).

Vitamin B1: Thiamin

Vitamin B2: Riboflavin

Vitamin B3: Niacin

Vitamin B5: Pantothenic Acid

Vitamin B6: Pyridoxine

Vitamin B7: Biotin

Vitamin B9: Folate

Vitamin B12: Cobalamin

Methylcobalamine vs Cyanocobalamine

Water Insoluble

Vitamin A: Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAEs)

Vitamin D: Calciferol

Calcitriol – secosteroid (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) – Active form of vitamin D3
Increase absorption of calcium and phosphate from gastrointestinal tract and kidneys inhibit release of PTH

Calcidiol- secosteroid (25-hydroxyvitamin D3) – Inactive form of vitamin D3

Ergocalciferol (D2) in UV Activated Mushrooms
Cholecalciferol (D3) in Fish, Live, Ego Yolks, Milk, Yogurt

Sunlight + 7-Dehydrocholesterol -> Cholecaliferol (D3) + Liver Enzyme 25-Hydroxylase -> 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol (Calcifediol) + Kidney 1alpha-hydroxylase -> 1,25-Hydroxycholecalciferol or Calcitriol (Active form)

Activity in the Body

Modulating Ca(+2), PO4(-3) through Parathyroid Hormone

Vitamin D as an Immunomodulatory and Antimicrobial Agent
Vitamin D stimulates the expression of potent antimicrobial peptides, such as cathelicidin and β defensin 2,22 which exist in neutrophils, monocytes, natural killer (NK) cells and epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract.

Deficiency Causes

Deficiency Consequences

Rickets in Children (Bendy Bones)
Osteomalacia in Adults (Brittle Bones)

Overdoese Symptoms

“Stones, Bones, Abdomen Moans and Psychic Groans” – Dr. Mike

Kidney Stones, Osteomalacia, Contracts Smooth Muscle in Abdomen, Nervous System Depression

Toxicity Rare even at 20,000 IU / day unless Sarcodosis

Low Level: < 30 nmol / L (UK), < 12 ng / ml (US) Goal Level: >75 nmol / L (UK), >30 ng / ml (US)

Vitamin E: Tocopherols and Tocotrienols

RDA: 15mg for Adults
TUL: 1000mg for Adults

Alpha-Tocopherol only form to meet human requirements?

Potent Anti-Oxidant against Peroxyl Free Radicals

Source: Nuts, Seeds, Liver

Free Radicals (Oxidants) steal Cell Membrane Electrons making them Unstable. Vitamine E sits in the cell membrane and binds to the Free Radicals itself instead to defend the Cell Membrane. Vitamin C then frees the Vitamin E and neutralizes the Free Radical.

Vitamin E sits in cell membranes and binds to Free Radicals

Vitamin K: Phylloquinone and Menaquinone

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