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The 13 Essential Macronutrients

Amino Acids

1. Leucine (LEU)

2. Phenylanine (PHE)

Precursor to Tyrosine, Dopamine, Adrenaline and Noradrenaline

3. Methionine (MET)

4. Lysine (LYS)

5. Histadine (HIS)

Precursor to Histamine

6. Tryptophan (TRP)

Precursor to Serotonin and Melatonin

7. Valine (VAL)

8. Threonine (THR)

9. Isoleucine (ILE)

Fatty Acids

10. Omega-3 (ω-3)

Alpha-linolenic Acid

11. Omega-9 (ω-9)

Linoleic acid


12. Dietary Fiber (DTF)


13. Calories (CAL)

0-4 / gram of Sugar Alcohols and Dietary Fiber

4 / gram of Carbohydrates

4 / gram of Protein

9 / gram of Fat

Maintenance Calories

Body Weight in Pounds x (12 + Activity Level scale 1-11)

Carbs ~= 4 Calories each (except Dietary Fiber)
Proteins ~= 4 Calories each
Fats = ~9 Calories each

0.8 to 1.3 grams of Protein / Pound
0.42 grams of Fat / Pound

100 pound person = ~105 grams of protein (~420 Calories) + 42.0 grams of Fat (~380 Calories) = 800 Calories. 120 grams of Carbs = 500 Calories for remaining calories need to reach 1300 Calories / Day for minimum activity level.

Unsorted Notes


Konjac Root
Glucomannan (absorbs 50x it’s weight): Use 1 gram + 1 to 2 Cups of Water 30 to 60 minutes before your meal to use as an appetite supressant.

Soluble versus Insoluble

Probiotics (more strains = better; Seed company looks awesome)

Soluble fiber binds to bile acids in the small intestine, making them less likely to enter the body; this in turn lowers cholesterol levels in the blood.[10] Soluble fiber also attenuates the absorption of sugar, reduces sugar response after eating, normalizes blood lipid levels and, once fermented in the colon, produces short-chain fatty acids as byproducts with wide-ranging physiological activities (discussion below). Although insoluble fiber is associated with reduced diabetes risk, the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown.[11]

Not yet formally proposed as an essential macronutrient (as of 2005), dietary fiber is nevertheless regarded as important for the diet, with regulatory authorities in many developed countries recommending increases in fiber intake.[8][9][12][13]

Arabinoxylan is a hemicellulose[1] found in both the primary and secondary cell walls of plants, including woods and cereal grains[2]

Arabinoxylans chiefly serve a structural role in the plant cells.[4] They are also the reservoirs of large amounts of ferulic acid and other phenolic acids which are covalently linked to them. Phenolic acids may also be involved in defense including protection against fungal pathogens.

Arabinoxylans are one of the main components of soluble and insoluble dietary fibers which are shown to exert various health benefits.[5] In addition, arabinoxylans, owing to their bound phenolic acids, are shown to have antioxidant activity.[6] Their ion exchange capacity and viscosity are also partly responsible for their beneficial metabolic effects.[7]

[1] “Hemicellulosic Polysaccharides”. University of Georgia. Retrieved April 1, 2020.

[2] McCartney, L; et al. (2005). “Monoclonal Antibodies to Plant Cell Wall Xylans and Arabinoxylans”. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry. 53 (4): 543–546. doi:10.1369/jhc.4b6578.2005. PMID 15805428.

[4] Wakabayashi K, et al (2005). Physiologia Plantarum. 125:127–134

[5] Izydorczyk, MS; Dexter, JE (2008). “Barley β-glucans and arabinoxylans: Molecular structure, physicochemical properties, and uses in food products–a Review”. Food Research International. 41 (9): 850–868. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2008.04.001

[6] Rao, RS; Muralikrishna, G (2006). “Water soluble feruloyl arabinoxylans from rice and ragi: changes upon malting and their consequence on antioxidant activity”. Phytochemistry. 67 (1): 91–9. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.09.036. PMID 16289622

[7] Guillon, F; Champ, M (2000). “Structural and physical properties of dietary fibres, and consequences of processing on human physiology”. Food Research International. 33 (3–4): 233–245. doi:10.1016/s0963-9969(00)00038-7

Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula (C6H10O5)
n, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.[3][4] Cellulose is an important structural component of the primary cell wall of green plants, many forms of algae and the oomycetes. Some species of bacteria secrete it to form biofilms.[5] Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth.[6] The cellulose content of cotton fiber is 90%, that of wood is 40–50%, and that of dried hemp is approximately 57%.[7][8][9]
Cellulose is mainly used to produce paperboard and paper. Smaller quantities are converted into a wide variety of derivative products such as cellophane and rayon. Conversion of cellulose from energy crops into biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol is under development as a renewable fuel source. Cellulose for industrial use is mainly obtained from wood pulp and cotton.[6]
Some animals, particularly ruminants and termites, can digest cellulose with the help of symbiotic micro-organisms that live in their guts, such as Trichonympha. In human nutrition, cellulose is a non-digestible constituent of insoluble dietary fiber, acting as a hydrophilic bulking agent for feces and potentially aiding in defecation.

Chitin (C8H13O5N)n (/ˈkaɪtɪn/ KY-tin) is a long-chain polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, an amide derivative of glucose. The second most abundant polysaccharide in nature[1] (behind only cellulose), it is a primary component of cell walls in fungi, the exoskeletons of arthropods such as crustaceans and insects, and the radulae, cephalopod beaks and gladii of molluscs. It is also synthesised by at least some fish and lissamphibians.[2] The structure of chitin is comparable to cellulose, forming crystalline nanofibrils or whiskers. It is functionally comparable to the protein keratin. Chitin has proved useful for several medicinal, industrial and biotechnological purposes.

The English word “chitin” comes from the French word chitine, which was derived in 1821 from the Greek word χιτών (khitōn) meaning covering.[3]
A similar word, “chiton”, refers to a marine animal with a protective shell.

The structure of chitin was determined by Saint Albert Hofmann in 1929. Hofmann hydrolyzed chitin using a crude preparation of the enzyme chitinase, which he obtained from the snail Helix pomatia.[4][5][6]

[1] Elieh-Ali-Komi, Daniel; Hamblin, Michael R (March 1, 2016). “Chitin and Chitosan: Production and Application of Versatile Biomedical Nanomaterials”. International Journal of Advanced Research. 4 (3): 411–427. ISSN 2320-5407. PMC 5094803. PMID 27819009.

[2] Tang, WJ; Fernandez, JG; Sohn, JJ; Amemiya, CT (2015). “Chitin is endogenously produced in vertebrates”. Curr Biol. 25 (7): 897–900. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.01.058. PMC 4382437. PMID 25772447.

[3] Odier, Auguste (1823). “Mémoire sur la composition chimique des parties cornées des insectes” [Memoir on the chemical composition of the horny parts of insects]. Mémoires de la Société d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris (in French). presented: 1821. 1: 29–42. la Chitine (c’est ainsi que je nomme cette substance de chiton, χιτον, enveloppe… [chitine (it is thus that I name this substance from chiton, χιτον, covering)]”

[4] Hofmann, A. (1929). Über den enzymatischen Abbau des Chitins und Chitosans On the enzymatic degradation of chitin and chitosan. Zurich, Switzerland: University of Zurich.

[5] Karrer, P.; Hofmann, A. (1929). “Polysaccharide XXXIX. Über den enzymatischen Abbau von Chitin and Chitosan I”. Helvetica Chimica Acta (in German). 12 (1): 616–637. doi:10.1002/hlca.19290120167.

[6] Finney, Nathaniel S.; Siegel, Jay S. (2008). “In Memoriam: Albert Hofmann (1906-2008)” (PDF). Chimia. University of Zurich. 62 (5): 444–447. doi:10.2533/chimia.2008.444.


ATP (Adenosine Tri-Phosphate)
Acetyl CoA

Glycemic Index

Affects Blood Glucose Levels and Insulin Response.

0-55 = Low
56-69 = Med

69 = High


Energy and Indigestible Fibers

~1:1 Ratio of Carbon to Oxygen Atoms

All Converted to Glucose in the Liver and stored as Glycogen.

When you eat more carbohydrates than your body needs, your system uses Acetyl CoA to turn the excess into fatty acids and triglycerides through the process of lipogenesis [1] by the liver, adipose tissue and to a lesser extent the digestive system and kidneys [2][3].

[1] Kersten S (April 2001). “Mechanisms of nutritional and hormonal regulation of lipogenesis”. EMBO Rep. 2 (4): 282–6. doi:10.1093/embo-reports/kve071. PMC 1083868. PMID 11306547.

[2] Hoffman, Simon; Alvares, Danielle; Adeli, Khosrow (2019). “Intestinal lipogenesis: how carbs turn on triglyceride production in the gut”. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care. 22 (4): 284–288. doi:10.1097/MCO.0000000000000569. ISSN 1473-6519. PMID 31107259. S2CID 159039179.

[3] Figueroa-Juárez, Elizabeth; Noriega, Lilia G.; Pérez-Monter, Carlos; Alemán, Gabriela; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Ramírez, Victoria; Tovar, Armando R.; Torre-Villalvazo, Iván; Tovar-Palacio, Claudia (2021-01-07). “The Role of the Unfolded Protein Response on Renal Lipogenesis in C57BL/6 Mice”. Biomolecules. 11 (1): 73. doi:10.3390/biom11010073. ISSN 2218-273X. PMC 7825661. PMID 33430288.

Monosaccharides (C6 H12 O6)

Glucose: Brain relies exclusively on Glucose



Disaccharides (C12 H22 O11)

Sucrose (Glucose + Galactose)

Lactose (Glucose + Galactose)

Maltose (Glucose + Glucose)



Galactogen: However, apart from snail embryos and hatchlings, no animal seems to be able to catabolize galactogen, including adult snails. This fact led to consider galactogen as part of an antipredation defense system exclusive of gastropods, deterring predators by lowering the nutritional value of eggs.[15]

[15] Giglio ML, Ituarte S, Pasquevich MY, Heras H (2016-09-12). “The eggs of the apple snail Pomacea maculata are defended by indigestible polysaccharides and toxic proteins”. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 94 (11): 777–785. doi:10.1139/cjz-2016-0049. hdl:1807/74381. ISSN 0008-4301

Fatty Acids (Fats)

Lipids = Fat Soluble

Energy, Insulation, Cholesterol (Cell Membranes and Steroid Synthesis)

Carboxyl Groups with Hydrocarbon Chains

Saturated Fatty Acid: Hydrocarbon Chain is straight and Stackable, Solid at Room Temperature, Primary Source is Animal Meat.

Unsaturated Fatty Acid: Hydrocarbon Chain is kinked with one (mono) or more (poly) carbon double bounds where both carbons are only attached to one Hydrogen. Liquid at Room Temperature, Primary Source is Plant Oils.

Triglyceride = Glycerol with 3 Fatty Acids attached (lipolysis breaks off fatty acids for metabolism into energy)

Amino Acids (Proteins)

Structure and Function (Enzymes), Backup Energy Source

Every Amino Acid has a Nitrogen Amine, Carboxylic Acid Group and a Functional Group.

Functional Group cans can denote various properties such as:

  • Hydrophobic
  • Hydrophillic
  • Acidic
  • Basic
  • Positive Charge
  • Negative Charge

Amnio Acids can be linked together to form Polypeptide Chains that fold into Proteins.

Functional Molecular Lego Blocks with Protein Blueprints encoded into DNA/RNA.

Amniotic Fluid

From Amnos meaning Lamb or Baby;
At first, amniotic fluid is mainly water with electrolytes, but by about the 12-14th week the liquid also contains proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and phospholipids, and urea, all of which aid in the growth of the fetus.

— Collagens

Fatty Acids


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